Employee Experience

The McNamara Fallacy in Business: a Complete Guide

6 Mins read

The McNamara Fallacy, rooted in emphasizing easily measurable data while disregarding broader perspectives, holds relevance across different domains. From education to business and human resources, this fallacy highlights the tendency to prioritize simple metrics over more comprehensive understanding. In this exploration, we’ll delve into various examples illustrating the impact of this fallacy and ways to detect and mitigate its influence.

Understanding the McNamara Fallacy

The McNamara Fallacy involves making a decision based solely on quantitative metrics and ignoring all other observations. It’s quite common in corporate decision making: the big picture can be lost because of an obsession for one (or more) metric.

Robert McNamara (1916-2009) was the US Secretary of Defense between 1961 and 1968. He can be said to have been the architect of the Vietnam war. Before he was recruited to join the John F. Kennedy administration, he was one of the Whiz Kids, a group of ten US Army Air Forces veterans of World War II who became Ford Motor Company executives in 1946. During the war, these “whiz kids” implemented “statistical process control”, a method of quality control, to help coordinate all operational and logistical information and improve the conduct of the war. They can be said to have contributed to the logistics revolution of the following decades that deeply transformed large organizations.

As Secretary of Defense, McNamara sought to replicate the methods that had been so successful at Ford. He brought new methods to the conduct of the Vietnam war. The fallacy refers to McNamara’s quantification of success in the war. Ignoring all other variables, success was measured in terms of enemy body count, i.e. the number of dead Vietnamese.

Today the McNamara legacy is very controversial. The use of chemical weapons in the war (including the infamous Agent Orange) was justified by this obsession with the pursuit of one goal—to kill as many Vietnamese as possible. The US army lost track of the war’s strategic objectives. They failed to notice the growing determination of the enemy. And they failed to see that the war was causing chaos in US politics.

Examples of McNamara Fallacy

The McNamara Fallacy is when we think we can measure how well someone is educated without truly understanding if they’ve actually learned anything. This usually occurs when people get too caught up in scores and results, forgetting about the real purpose of education.

Imagine researchers checking how much students have learned by giving them tests. They find that students who did one test did better, but then they find others who did a different test also scored well. The problem is, a test can’t really measure learning. It only shows how good someone is at taking that specific test. So, comparing scores from different tests doesn’t tell us which one is more important. It can lead to biased research.

For instance, consider a study about clean water’s impact on life in developing countries. It’s challenging to measure how much clean water directly affects people’s lives, and this might get overlooked, even though it’s essential for the research.

Here are some more examples:

  • Focusing solely on the number of hours employees spend at work to measure productivity, overlooking the quality of their output and creativity.
  • Relying solely on weight as a measure of health, disregarding factors like diet, exercise, mental well-being, and overall lifestyle.
  • Assessing a country’s prosperity by looking at Gross Domestic Product (GDP) alone. This means you don’t consider income distribution, healthcare, education, and environmental sustainability.
  • Evaluating a call center’s performance based solely on the number of calls handled, without considering customer satisfaction or issue resolution.

Just like there are many types of mistakes in thinking (fallacies), there are ways to spot and avoid them. We’ll explore some of those in the following sections.

Example of the McNamara Fallacy in Education

Let’s consider a school district that aims to improve the quality of education for its students. They decide to measure success primarily by tracking standardized test scores, which is a straightforward and easily quantifiable metric.

The school district invests a significant amount of resources, time, and effort in coaching and preparing students for these tests. The logic is that higher test scores will reflect improved education quality and, therefore, lead to a better reputation for the district.

However, in this process, they might focus excessively on teaching to the test, narrowing down the curriculum to fit the specific topics tested. Other important aspects of education, such as critical thinking, creativity, and problem-solving skills, may get sidelined or receive less attention.

By fixating on the easily measurable test scores, the educational system could be missing out on a more comprehensive understanding of the students’ real learning experiences and the effectiveness of the education being provided. The McNamara Fallacy lies in prioritizing what’s easily measurable (test scores) while potentially neglecting a more holistic view of education quality and its long-term impact on students.

Example of the McNamara Fallacy in Business

In the business world, keeping track of progress is essential. However, the McNamara Fallacy often creeps into many businesses today. It happens when we focus too much on what’s easy to measure and overlook what’s difficult to measure. We end up giving a lot of importance to the easy-to-measure aspects and try to improve them, forgetting about everything else. Sadly, this can make us blind to the real situation within the business.

Imagine a retail company that’s heavily invested in advertising campaigns. They decide to measure the success of these campaigns based on the immediate increase in website traffic and the number of clicks on their ads. These metrics are easy to measure and track in real-time.

The McNamara Fallacy 2

As a result, they allocate more budget to campaigns that generate the highest website traffic and clicks, assuming that this will lead to more sales and greater profits. However, they overlook the longer-term impact of these campaigns on actual customer purchases, repeat business, or brand loyalty.

In focusing solely on easily measurable metrics like website traffic and clicks, they might miss out on understanding the true return on investment (ROI) of their advertising efforts, including factors like customer lifetime value, overall brand perception, and customer retention. The McNamara Fallacy here lies in the fixation on easily measurable metrics while disregarding a broader view of business impact.

What about in Human Resources (HR)?

In big companies, including HR departments, it’s a common mistake to get too fixated on just one measure and forget about other important goals. HR departments, which evolved from the managerial revolution seen in the Ford Whiz Kids, got more professional by using new measures, but this made them slower and more rigid.

It’s not just big corporations; even growing startups can fall into this trap! For instance, some startups believe that hiring a lot of people quickly means they’re doing great. They see employee growth as a sign of success, using it to attract future investors. Ironically, startups should be aiming for scalability, serving more users without constantly adding a ton of new employees. It’s important not to lose sight of what really matters—like users and revenue.

How to Spot the McNamara Fallacy

The McNamara Fallacy is a common mistake researchers make. It happens when they focus only on what’s easy to measure and forget about everything else in the big picture.

This often occurs in studies involving people. For example, imagine researchers studying how medicine affects patients. They might assume that the patients who experienced side effects were affected by the medicine. However, they might overlook patients who didn’t experience side effects because they were feeling good or had other health issues.

To avoid this mistake, researchers need to remember that many things can affect how a person reacts to something. These factors can be more crucial than what happens during the study. There are ways to detect this mistake in research.

One way is to design an experiment that considers all factors, even the challenging ones to measure. Another way is to have an expert analyze the data, especially for aspects that are hard to measure, like happiness or productivity.

How to Beat the McNamara Fallacy

To avoid falling for the McNamara Fallacy, HR goals should align with the broader business goals. Often, the fallacy happens when HR objectives are disconnected from the bigger picture.

Patty McCord, the former Head of People at Netflix, highlights a key solution: everyone in a company, including HR staff, should thoroughly comprehend the business model and strategy. Training should emphasize always keeping an eye on the business goals.

Moreover, incentives for managers should mirror the company’s actual objectives. These incentives should also be regularly reviewed and questioned to ensure they stay in line with the real goals, helping to steer clear of the fallacy.


In simple terms, the McNamara Fallacy happens when we pay too much attention to numbers that are easy to measure, ignoring the bigger picture. It’s like wearing blinders, preventing us from seeing what’s really happening. In a business context, you might be facing the fallacy if all your easy-to-measure performance indicators look great, but your actual profits aren’t getting better.

Further Reading

Understanding Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions – A Complete Guide
Understanding The CAGE Framework – Tips, Tricks & Best Practices
Ruinous Empathy Quadrant: a Complete Guide

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About author
Fatjona Gërguri is the content writer for Employee Experience Magazine, covering the relevant topics about employee experience, organizational culture and general HR topics.
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